共謀罪法案と知的財産権

手錠

知的財産権侵害罪はテロ準備罪なのか?

テロ等の準備予防目的で、組織的な犯罪に対する共謀罪の法案が国会でも審議されている最中です。政府は処罰対象となる277の犯罪を挙げており、その中の1つの分類は資金源として機能するとの理由から、次のような知的財産権が含まれています。

      
  1. 四十四特許法(昭和三十四年法律第百二十一号)第百九十六条又は第百九十六条の二(特許権等の侵害)の罪
  2. 四十五実用新案法(昭和三十四年法律第百二十三号)第五十六条(実用新案権等の侵害)の罪
  3. 四十六意匠法(昭和三十四年法律第百二十五号)第六十九条又は第六十九条の二(意匠権等の侵害)の罪
  4. 四十七商標法(昭和三十四年法律第百二十七号)第七十八条又は第七十八条の二(商標権等の侵害)の罪
  5. 五十五著作権法(昭和四十五年法律第四十八号)第百十九条第一項又は第二項(著作権等の侵害等)の罪
  6. 七十六種苗法(平成十年法律第八十三号)第六十七条(育成者権等の侵害)の罪

商標権侵害や著作権侵害がテロとは直接(あるいは全く)結びつかないという知財関係者も多いと思います。しかし、成立を目指している法案はそのあたりは聞く耳持たずの呈を示しております。この知的財産の刑法領域は、特許庁が主たる担当行政庁という訳でもなく、弁理士、弁理士会も刑法を専門とするわけでもなく、刑法系の委員会もなしなので、米国のようなアミカスブリーフ(amicus brief)のような意見書がでることもなく勝手に決められてしまうのではと思います。一部の大学教授や野党議員の反対だけで終わりそうなところです。

合唱団は犯罪集団か “共謀罪”の国会審議続く(17/04/22)

共謀罪とは?

現時点(2017.4.27)では日本の法律では、組織的な犯罪集団に対して「犯罪を実行」することを構成要件としているために、計画した時点では犯罪とすることができないでいます。米国のConspiracyのルールでは、一般に刑法は州ごとに定められていますが、州の立法のモデルとなるようなmodel penal code(模範刑法典)という参照用条文が存在しており、その中ではfelony(殺人、強盗などの重犯罪)以外はOvert Act(外的行為)を要件としています。日本の共謀罪でも、”実行に資する行為”が行われない限り処罰されないという議論もありますので、外的行為要件を処罰の条件としているようには思います。しかしながら、米国の場合、知的財産の侵害は不法行為(torts)ではありますが、刑事罰の対象となる犯罪(crime)ではありません。特許権侵害で考えてみると、こんな特許は潰せるとしていた被告企業が原告の特許製品を組織的に侵害して作り続けた場合には、拡大解釈すれば共謀罪も当てはまるように思います。商標では、たまたま誰かに商標をとられてしまった飲食店の店主も看板を降ろすのを従業員とためらうと同様なリスクがあるものと思います。知的財産権侵害罪で本当に罰則が必要なのは、偽ブランド・海賊版(counterfeit/pirates)系の行為ぐらいで、特許権侵害や品種登録の侵害がテロにつながるとは思えないところです。

Section 5.03. Criminal Conspiracy / Model Penal Code
Section 5.03. Criminal Conspiracy
(1) Definition of Conspiracy. A person is guilty of conspiracy with another person or persons to commit a crime if with the purpose of promoting or facilitating its commission he:

(a) agrees with such other person or persons that they or one or more of them will engage in conduct which constitutes such crime or an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime; or

(b) agrees to aid such other person or persons in the planning or commission of such crime or of an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime.

(2) Scope of Conspiratorial Relationship. If a person guilty of conspiracy, as defined by Subsection (1) of this Section, knows that a person with whom he conspires to commit a crime has conspired with another person or persons to commit the same crime, he is guilty of conspiring with such other person or persons, whether or not he knows their identity, to commit such crime.

(3) Conspiracy With Multiple Criminal Objectives. If a person conspires to commit a number of crimes, he is guilty of only one conspiracy so long as such multiple crimes are the object of the same agreement or continuous conspiratorial relationship.

(4) Joinder and Venue in Conspiracy Prosecutions.

(a) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this Subsection, two or more persons charged with criminal conspiracy may be prosecuted jointly if:

(i) they are charged with conspiring with one another; or

(ii) the conspiracies alleged, whether they have the same or different parties, are so related that they constitute different aspects of a scheme of organized criminal conduct.

(b) In any joint prosecution under paragraph (a) of this Subsection:

(i) no defendant shall be charged with a conspiracy in any county [parish or district] other than one in which he entered into such conspiracy or in which an overt act pursuant to such conspiracy was done by him or by a person with whom he conspired; and

(ii) neither the liability of any defendant nor the admissibility against him of evidence of acts or declarations of another shall be enlarged by such joinder; and

(iii) the Court shall order a severance or take a special verdict as to any defendant who so requests, if it deems it necessary or appropriate to promote the fair determination of his guilt or innocence, and shall take any other proper measures to protect the fairness of the trial.

(5) Overt Act. No person may be convicted of conspiracy to commit a crime, other than a felony of the first or second degree, unless an overt act in pursuance of such conspiracy is alleged and proved to have been done by him or by a person with whom he conspired.

(6) Renunciation of Criminal Purpose. It is an affirmative defense that the actor, after conspiring to commit a crime, thwarted the success of the conspiracy, under circumstances manifesting a complete and voluntary renunciation of his criminal purpose.

(7) Duration of Conspiracy. For purposes of Section 1.06(4):

(a) conspiracy is a continuing course of conduct which terminates when the crime or crimes which are its object are committed or the agreement that they be committed is abandoned by the defendant and by those with whom he conspired; and

(b) such abandonment is presumed if neither the defendant nor anyone with whom he conspired does any overt act in pursuance of the conspiracy during the applicable period of limitation; and

(c) if an individual abandons the agreement, the conspiracy is terminated as to him only if and when he advises those with whom he conspired of his abandonment or he informs the law enforcement authorities of the existence of the conspiracy and of his participation therein.